Glossary I

IBT -- See Immunobead Binding Test.

ICI -- See Intracervical Insemination.

ICSI -- See Intra-cytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

Idiopathic (Unexplained) Infertility -- When no cause for infertility can be found after substantial testing.

IF -- See Infertility.

Immature Oocyte Retrieval (IOR) -- A procedure in which immature eggs are aspirated from the ovaries and treated in the laboratory with fertility drugs to bring them too maturity. At maturity they are mixed with sperm and any resulting embryos are transferred into the uterus.

Immature Sperm (Germinal Cell) -- A sperm that has not matured and gained the ability to swim. In the presence of illness or infection such sperm may appear in the semen in large numbers.

Immune System -- The body's defense mechanism against any injury or invasion by a foreign substance or organism.

Immunobead Binding Test (IBT) -- Used to detect antisperm antibodies.

Immunoglobulins -- Antibodies.

Immunosupressive Drug -- A drug that interferes with the normal immune response.

Immunotherapy -- A medical treatment for an immune system disorder that involves transfusing donor white blood cells into a woman who has recurrent miscarriages.

Implantation (Embryo) -- The embedding of the embryo into tissue so it can establish contact with the mother's blood supply for nourishment. Implantation usually occurs in the lining of the uterus 5-10 days after ovulation; however, in an ectopic pregnancy it may occur elsewhere in the body.

Implantation Failure -- Inability of the fertilized egg to properly implant in the uterinelining.

Implantation Spotting -- Bleeding associated with an embryo implanting into the endometrium around 5-10 days after ovulation. It is not uncommon, but it is not the norm.

Impotence -- The inability of the man to achieve or maintain an erection and to ejaculate due to physical or emotional problems, or a combination thereof. This is not the same thing as being sterile.

Incompetent Cervix -- A weakened cervix which opens prematurely during pregnancy and can cause the loss of the fetus. A cervical cerclage is a procedure in which a stitch or two is put around the cervix to prevent its opening until removed when the pregnancy is at term.

Incomplete Abortion -- A miscarriage where some tissue has bassed but some remains in the uterus.

Infection --- the state or condition in which the body or a part of it is invaded by pathogenic agent (microorganism or virus) that under favorable conditions multiply or produces injurious effects.

Infertility (IF) -- The inability to conceive after a year of unprotected intercourse in women under 35, or after six months in women over 35, or the inability to carry a pregnancy to term. Also included are diagnosed problems such as anovulation, tubal blockage, low sperm count, etc.

Inflammation -- Swelling, redness, heat and pain caused by injury such as infection.

Inhibin -- A male feedback hormone made in the testicles to regulate FSH production by the pituitary gland.

Inhibin-B -- Inhibin B is secreted by the granulosa cells while estradiol is secreted by several other cell types in the ovary. Women with low levels of the hormone were found to have more impaired ovulation in the course of the IVF cycle, lower pregnancy rates, higher cancellation rates and miscarriage rates. Often tested in conjunction with antiovarian antibodies to determine ovarian reserve.

Inhibin-F (Folliculostatin) -- A female feedback hormone made in the ovary to regulate FSH production by the pituitary gland.

Injectables/Injectable Fertility Medications -- Medications given by injection. On INCIID and other infertility forums, the word injectables is commonly used to refer to ovulation induction medications such as hMG (brands Pergonal, Humegon and Repronex), urofollitropins (brands Fertinex and Metrodin), and recombinant FSH follitropins alpha and beta (brands Follistim and Gonal-F).

Insulin -- The hormone used by the body to control blood sugar (glucose). Insulin resistance (over-production of insulin in relation to glucose) can lead to weight gain and ovulation difficulties.

Insulin Resistant (IR) -- Occurs when the body produces too much insulin in relation to glucose. One is considered insulin resistant with a fasting blood sugar of over 110, or a fasting glucose to insulin ratio of less than 4.5:1.

Interstitial (Cornual) Ectopic Pregnancy

The interstitial segment of the fallopian tube is the segment that lies within the muscular wall of the uterus. Interstitial pregnancy accounts for up to 1 to 3% of all ectopic pregnancies.The term cornual pregnancy is used interchangeably in the United States as a synonym for interstitial pregnancies. However, it refers to a pregnancy in the interstitial segment of a unicornuate or bicornuate uterus.As the pregnancy grows in the area of the fallopian tube that enters the uterus, surrounding myometrial tissue allows for further development of the pregnancy into the second trimester. Rupture of such an advanced gestation may result in catastrophic hemorrhage. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancies relies heavily on ultrasound and potentially on laparoscopic evaluation.

Intracervical Insemination (ICI) -- Artificial insemination where the sperm is deposited into the cervical canal. See Artificial Insemination.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) -- A procedure in which a single sperm is injected into the egg to enable fertilization with very low sperm counts or with non-motile sperm.

Intramuscular (IM) -- An IM medication is given by needle into the muscle. This is as opposed to a medication that is given by a needle, for example, into the skin (intradermal) or just below the skin (subcutaneous) or into a vein (intravenous).

Intratubal Insemination (ITI) -- Artificial insemination where washed sperm is deposited into the fallopian tubes. See Artificial Insemination.

Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) -- A reduction in fetal growth for reasons such as infection, inadequate placenta, or exposure to teratogens.

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) -- A relatively "low-tech" ART which deposits washed sperm directly into the uterus, bypassing cervical mucus and depositing the sperm more closely to the fallopian tubes, where fertilization occurs. Used to bypass hostile cervical mucus and to overcome sperm count and motility problems. See Artificial Insemination. See Dr. Sherbahn's article on IUI

Intravaginal Culture (IVC) -- A procedure related to in vitro fertilization where eggs and sperm are combined in a capsule and then inserted into a woman's vagina to incubate for 48 hours. The goal being for fertilization to happen within the woman's body. After 24 hours, any embryos are transferred into the uterus.

Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) -- Intravenous transfer of immunglobulin (antibodies), used for some immune problems. 

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) -- Literally means "in glass." Fertilization takes place outside the body in a small glass dish.

IOR -- See Immature Oocyte Retrieval.

IR -- See Insulin Resistant.

ITI  -- See Intratubal Insemination.

IUGR -- See Intra-uterine Growth Retardation.

IUI -- See Intra-uterine Insemination.

IVC -- See Intra-vaginal Culture.

IVF -- See In Vitro Fertilization.

IVIg -- See Intravenous Immunoglobulin.