Glossary D

D&C -- See Dilation and Curettage.

D&E -- See Dilation & Evacuation.

Danazol (Danocrine) -- A synthetic androgen used to treat endometriosis. Suppresses LH and FSH production by the pituitary and causes a state of amenorrhea during which the endometrial implants waste away. Many women experience oily skin, acne, weight gain, abnormal hair growth, deepening of the voice and muscle cramps with this medication.

Day 1 -- The first day of a woman's cycle with menses in full flow (not just spotting). Flow should begin before mid-afternoon or the next day would be considered Day 1.

Days Post-Ovulation (DPO) -- The number of days a woman is past ovulation. Counting begins the day after ovulation, so if ovulation is on Wednesday, Saturday would be 3 DPO.

Days Post-Transfer (DPT) -- The number of days a woman is past embryo transfer. Counting begins the day after transfer, so if is on Monday, Friday would be 4 DPO.

DHEAS -- See Dihydroepiandrosterone Sulfate.

Diaphragmatic Hernia: Herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity through an opening in the diaphragm. The condition may be congenital, acquired (traumatic), or esophageal.The wide, flat muscle that separates the chest and abdominal cavities is called the diaphragm. The diaphragm forms when a fetus is at 8 weeks’ gestation. When it does not form completely, a defect, called a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), is created. This is a hole in the muscle between the chest and the abdomen.There are a wide range of outcomes. Many infants do not survive. For more information

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) -- A synthetic estrogen prescribed in the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s to women to prevent miscarriage. Many male and female fetuses exposed in utero to this drug developed numerous deformities including blockage of the vas deferens, uterine abnormalities, cervical deformities, miscarriages, and unexplained infertility. DES was banned in 1971 by the FDA in the U.S. for pregnant women. DES daughter/son: the daughter/son of a woman who used DES. Research is also looking into effects on DES grandchildren.

Dihydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) – An androgen produced primarily by the adrenal gland. A high level suggests too much adrenal androgen output. See Adrenal Androgens.

Dilation and Curettage (D&C) -- A procedure used to dilate (expand) the cervical canal and scrape out the lining and contents of the uterus. The procedure can be used to diagnose or treat the cause of abnormal bleeding and to terminate an unwanted pregnancy.

Dilation & Evacuation (D&E) -- A procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the baby and placenta are removed. D&E is used to describe two different procedures. One is similar to a D&C and uses more suction than scraping, and is performed on first trimester pregnancies. A D&E can also be used to describe a surgical removal of a fetus between 14-20 weeks gestation as an alternative to induced labor.

Direct Intra-peritoneal Insemination (DIPI, IPI) -- Injection of sperm into the peritoneal cavity. A form or artificial insemination that may be used with low sperm counts and motility.

Direct Oocyte-Sperm Transfer (DOST) -- Involves transvaginal retrieval of eggs from the stimulated ovary, just as in standard IVF. However, following retrieval, instead of inseminating the eggs with sperm and placing them into the incubator, the eggs are inseminated and transferred directly into the uterus nonsurgically two hours later. This allows the eggs to fertilize within the uterus, making it acceptable for women with damaged, nonfunctional or absent fallopian tubes, just as in IVF.

Donor Egg -- Eggs donated by one woman to another.

Donor Insemination -- Artificial insemination with donor sperm. See Artificial Insemination, Intrauterine Insemination.

Doxycycline -- A tetracycline derivative; an antibiotic that inhibits many of the microorganisms infecting the reproductive tract. Often used for treating ureaplasma infections. Many physicians find routine treatment with this antibiotic more cost-effective than performing multiple cultures on both the husband and wife looking for infection.

DPO -- See Days Post-Ovulation

DPT -- See Days Post-Transfer.

Dysfunction -- Abnormal function.

Dysmenorrhea -- Painful menstruation.

Dyspareunia -- Difficult or painful coitus.