Glossary G

Galactorrhea -- A clear or milky discharge from the breasts associated with elevated prolactin.

Gamete -- A reproductive cell: Sperm in men, the egg in women.

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) --- A technique that may be used in lieu of in vitro fertilization for women with patent (clear and open) tubes. After egg retrieval the eggs are mixed with sperm and then immediately injected through the fimbria into the woman's fallopian tubes for in vivo fertilization. Procedure is done through laparoscopy.

Gardnerella -- A bacteria which may cause vaginal infection.

GD, GDM -- See Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Genetic Counseling -- The advice offered by experts in genetics on the detection, consequences, and risk of recurrence of chromosomal and genetic disorders.

Germ Cell -- In the male the testicular cell that divides to produce the immature sperm cells; in the woman the ovarian cell that divides to form the egg (ovum). The male germ cell remains intact throughout the man's reproductive life; the woman uses up her germ cells at the rate of about one thousand per menstrual cycle, although usually only one egg matures each cycle.

Germ Cell Aplasia (Sertoli Cell Only) -- An inherited condition in which the testicles have no germ cells. Since men with this condition have normal Leydig cells, they will develop secondary sex characteristics. May also be caused by large and/or prolonged exposure to toxins or radiation.

Gestation -- The period of fetal development in the womb (uterus) from implantation to birth.

Gestational Diabetes  Mellitus (GD, GDM) -- A temporary impairment of the ability to process sugar during pregnancy.

Gestational Host -- A woman who contracts to carry a pregnancy for someone else. The host is not the biological mother of the baby being carried.

Gestation Sac -- The fluid-filled sac in which the fetus grows and develops.

Gland -- An secretory organ or structure that produces or secretes essential body fluids or substances, such as hormones.

Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) -- A screening test for insulin resistance, diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Usually blood is drawn at fasting, and then the patient drinks or eats a certain amount of glucose. Blood is drawn at one hour, two hours and three hours to check glucose levels. Some may have an additional blood draw at a half hour.

GnRH -- See Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone.

Gonads -- The glands that make reproductive cells and "sex" hormones: the testicles, which make sperm and testosterone, and the ovaries, which make eggs (ova) and estrogen.

Gonorrhea -- A sexually transmitted disease that may lead to infertility. Caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonococcus.

Gonadotropins -- Hormones that control reproductive function: Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Leutenizing Hormone.

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) -- The hormone which controls the production and release of gonadotropins. Secreted by the hypothalamus every ninety minutes or so, this hormone enables the pituitary to secrete LH and FSH, which stimulate the gonads. See FSH,LH.

Gonal-F -- Recombinant FSH injectable fertility medication used for superovulation.

Granuloma -- A ball of inflamed tissue, commonly formed after vasectomy due to sperm leaking into the vas deferens